The first semblance of a Goan identity began to emerge with the Kadamba dynasty (with Goa as its capital) which ruled that region starting around the 10th century. "Goa", then primarily concentrated around the head of the Zuari river prospered as are result of a thriving sea trade with the arabs.
In 1347, Goa fell under the muslim kingdom of Bahamani. This resulted in the destruction of many hindu temples and was a foretaste of things to come under Portuguese rule. By 1378, Goa was retaken by a another neighbouring hindu kingdom of Vijaynagar, only to lose it yet again to the Bahamanis in 1470. The Bahmanis were superceeded by the kingdom of Bijapur (also muslim), which under their leader Adil Shah established a thriving new port further north at the head of the Mandovi river.